There is a significant association between persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) and depression, according to a meta-analysis published online Dec. 27 in JAMA Network Open.
Maude Lambert, Ph.D., from the University of Ottawa in Ontario, Canada, and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between depressive symptoms and PPCS in children, adolescents, and adults and to examine potential moderators of the association. PPCS was defined as physician-diagnosed or self-reported concussion, with symptoms lasting at least four weeks. Data were obtained from 18 studies with 9,101 participants.
All the studies were cohort studies; 13 included adult populations. There was a mean of 21.3 weeks since concussion. The researchers found that the random-effects meta-analysis identified a significant association between PPCS and depression symptoms (odds ratio, 4.56) after accounting for potential publication bias. No significant moderators were identified, possibly due to the small number of studies.
“Gaining further knowledge on PPCS and identifying target variables that improve long-term outcomes are critical to inform the development of optimal concussion care plans,” the authors write. “With the high annual prevalence rates, concussions must remain a priority in clinical research, and efforts to better understand, monitor, and mitigate their adverse long-term consequences are needed.”
Maude Lambert et al, Depressive Symptoms in Individuals With Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, JAMA Network Open (2022). DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.48453
JAMA Network Open
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