Mouth sores and inflammation of the oral mucosa – causes, symptoms and treatment

The mouth rot is medically „aphthous Stomatitis“ and is triggered by the Herpes Virus “Herpes simplex type 1”. However, the term Stomatitis (mouth mucous membrane inflammation) also refers to various other diseases, which damage the oral mucosa. Are affected by the mouth sores mucous membrane of the mouth and gums.

Table of contents

The most important facts

  • Mouth rot describes an infectious disease of the oral mucosa caused by herpes virus Stomatitis, however, is a collective term for various infectious oral mucosal diseases.
  • Symptoms ulcers, high fever, extreme pain and swelling in the mouth area and difficulty values of food intake.
  • In the case of mouth rot, the symptoms are often pain – and fever-reducing medicines treated.
  • You can prevent infectious Stomatitis by oral hygiene.

How is this Virus transmitted?

The infection usually runs over the saliva already infected people, by sharing of utensils or by physical contact. Is infected not necessarily ill: Approximately 95% of all people carry the herpes simplex virus. Actively, it is usually when our immune system is weakened by other reasons, such as, for example, by diseases or psychological stress. Most of the time it comes to mouth sores, but herpes blisters on the lip.

The Mucous Membrane Of The Mouth

As the mucous membrane of the mouth we call cave the lining of the mouth, a plurality of partly keratinized layers with a moist pink surface. This is divided into different areas: The lining of the oral mucosa comprises the largest part and consists of unverhorntem squamous epithelium. She is up to 0.5 mm thick, flexible, and covers the soft palate, the base of the tongue, the extensions of the tooth pockets, as well as the oral vestibule and floor of the mouth.

The mastika toric mouth, it is verhornt skin, since it involved the most in the Mastication, approximately 0.25 mm thick and is located on the hard palate and on the gums. The specialized mucous membrane of the mouth is ultimately verhornt also has so-called papillae. They covered the back of the tongue and is responsible for the perception of taste is responsible. Among the tasks of the oral mucosa, the formation and secretion of saliva, as well as defense from germs.

The most common forms of inflammation of the oral mucosa

The by the herpes simplex virus caused „Stomatitis aphtosa“ is inflammation a Form of munsch glue skin. Other forms are

  • the „Stomatitis ulcerosa“ – an extremely painful variant,
  • the „Stomatitis angularis“ – this inflamed the mouth angle,
  • the „Stomatitis catarrhalis“- here,the mouth ulcerated mucosa,
  • the „Stomatitis vesiculosa“ – it is triggered by Rhabdoviren,
  • the „Stomatitis medicamentosa“ – an Overreaction to drugs,
  • the „Stomatitis mercurialis“ – mercury poisoning,
  • the „Thrush Stomatitis candidomycetica“ – a Candida infection with yellow cave spots in the mouth,
  • the „Stomatitis gangraenosa“ – severe inflammation, which which destroys the soft parts,
  • the „Stomatitis mycotica“ – is caused by fungi,
  • the „Stomatitis allergica“ – an allergic reaction
  • the „Stomatitis saturnine“ – lead poisoning
  • as well as the „Stomatitis diphterica“ – inflammation of the oral mucosa and tonsils, which occurs in combination with diphtheria.

Stomatitis – Causes

So different, a Stomatitis, a wide range of causes, ranging from infections with viruses, bacteria, or fungi (Candida) up to injuries, allergies, and medications. Often an underlying disease which weakens the immune system and germs so freely can penetrate. Bacteria grow especially if the oral mucosa is already damaged.

Typical non-infectious triggers are:

  • lack of oral hygiene and caries, Plaque, and Tartar,
  • Intolerance to antibiotics, oral care products, drugs, or food,
  • Smoking,
  • Alcohol,
  • poor condition of the oral cavity due to deficiency of iron or vitamin deficiency,
  • Stimuli such as heavy tooth brushing, incorrect brushing of teeth, very sharp, or very acidic foods,
  • Burns,
  • Injuries,
  • Poisoning,
  • Burns,
  • systemic diseases such as intestinal inflammation, Diabetes, or leukemia,
  • Venereal diseases such as Syphilis, gonorrhea or Aids,
  • psychosomatic factors such as Stress,
  • wrong tooth seat braces and/or dentures,
  • a dried oral mucosa,
  • in a Stomatitis gums temporary inflammation.

Symptoms of Stomatitis

A Stomatitis is characterized by

  • Swollen and/or reddened gums and a swollen and erythematous oral mucosa,
  • Pain in contact,
  • Canker sores – Ulcers on the oral mucosa – white covered with red hem
  • sour smell of the mouth,
  • sores on the palate, the inner cheeks, tongue and the inside of the lips,
  • Problems with food and fluid intake,
  • Mouth burning and tingling in the mouth,
  • Bleeding gums,
  • Loss of the top mucosal layer,
  • The death of mouth mucosa (necrosis),
  • dry mouth,
  • Bleeding of the oral mucosa,
  • Covering on the mucous membrane,
  • Pain in cheeks, teeth, or ears,
  • Numbness,
  • Loss of taste,
  • Mucilage,
  • high sensitivity to acidic, hot, cold, and sharp food,
  • swollen lymph nodes,
  • Fever,
  • Problems with swallowing.

Stomatitis History

In the course of Stomatitis depends on the respective Form. Typical for an infectious Stomatitis, the following processes. It starts with a General feeling of illness, and chronic fatigue. A up to five days of persistent fever, swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, and often a swelling of the gums follow. Initially, the swelling pain and bleeding freely, but later the mouth will ignite on the inside pages and on the palate, tongue and gum sores, which can begin to Form, to fester. They burst and ulcers as well as pain form skin crust in the mucous membrane. The gums get inflamed and bleed a little. The intake of food is causing a lot of pain and extreme bad breath and increased salivation. Infection with mouth rot takes heal up to three weeks until you.


As soon as the first symptoms of Stomatitis occur, it is recommended to consult promptly with a Ärzting or a doctor so that the cause can be clarified and the disease treated. What you can do in any case: do not use alcohol, cigarettes, sharp, heavy or sharp-edged foods.

In the pharmacy there are a variety of over-the-counter preparations, to stop an infection, to relieve the pain and reduce the swelling. Usually, the treatment of infectious Stomatitis is based on the relief of symptoms and pain by taking Paracetamol and Ibuprofen, which reduce both the pain and the fever low. To ulcer to address the pain directly, there are local anesthetics that you can use as a rinse, mouthwash or Gel.

A mouth rot prevention

A mouth sores or inflammation of the oral mucosa to prevent, it is strongly recommended to conduct a thorough oral hygiene, which of the following points should include:

  • Daily systematic brushing of teeth, which also covers the edge areas,
  • Cleaning between the teeth with dental floss,
  • regular mouth rinses,
  • Cleaning the tongue with a tongue scraper, so that no tongue coating is formed on the microorganisms. If no scraper is to Hand brush the tongue surface thoroughly with the toothbrush.

(Dr. Utz Anhalt)